Programmed death-ligand 1 expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma: Comparison among cytology, small biopsy, and surgical resection specimens

BACKGROUND

One immunotherapeutic agent for patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma, pembrolizumab, has a companion immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based assay that predicts response by quantifying programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. The current study assessed the feasibility of quantifying PD-L1 expression using cytologic non-small cell lung carcinoma specimens and compared the results with those from small biopsy and surgical resection specimens.

METHODS

PD-L1 expression was quantified using the IHC-based 22C3 pharmDx assay, with “positivity” defined as staining in ≥50% viable tumor cells; ≥ 100 tumor cells were required for test adequacy. For cytology specimens, IHC was performed on cell block sections.

RESULTS

A total of 214 specimens were collected from 188 patients, 206 of which (96%) were found to be adequately cellular, including 36 of 40 cytology (90%) and 69 of 72 small biopsy (96%) specimens. There was no significant difference noted with regard to the feasibility of PD-L1 IHC on small biopsy specimens compared with surgical resection specimens (P = .99), or between the percentage of PD-L1-positive cytology and histology (including surgical resection and histologic small biopsy) specimens (P = .083). PD-L1 expression was found to be concordant among samples from 21 of 23 patients from whom > 1 specimen was collected (91%). There also was no significant difference observed with regard to rates of PD-L1 positivity when comparing age, sex, diagnosis, and specimen site.

CONCLUSIONS

Quantification of PD-L1 expression is feasible on cytology specimens, and the results are comparable to those obtained from surgical resection and small biopsy specimens, including in matched specimens and using a single predictive IHC marker. Future studies will be necessary to determine the comparative value of other antibodies and their ability to predict response to immunotherapy. Cancer Cytopathol 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

http://ift.tt/2wRpBQP

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Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features in the pediatric age group

BACKGROUND

The most common malignant thyroid neoplasm in children is papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In 2015, the Endocrine Pathology Society introduced the terminology “noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features” (NIFTP) to replace the noninvasive follicular variant of PTC. The objective of the current study was to evaluate previously diagnosed PTC in the pediatric population, reappraise it for NIFTP, and discuss the impact of NIFTP on the risk of malignancy (ROM) for each The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology category in the pediatric population.

METHODS

The electronic databases of both study institutions were searched for all thyroidectomy specimens in patients aged <19 years from June 1, 2001 through June 1, 2016. The patient’s age, sex, diagnosis, previous fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis, and follow-up were tabulated. Slides for available cases were reviewed and cases qualifying as NIFTP were separated.

RESULTS

The cohort included 101 resected nodules; cytological diagnoses were available for 95 cases. These cases included diagnoses of nondiagnostic (5 cases; 5.2%), benign (21 cases; 22.1%), atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (9 cases; 9.5%), follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN) (25 cases; 26.3%), suspicious for malignancy (7 cases; 7.4%), and malignant (28 cases; 29.5%). On the histological follow-up, 50 cases (49.5%) were benign, 49 cases (48.5%) were malignant, and 2 cases (1.9%) were NIFTP. These NIFTP cases originally were diagnosed as FNs on fine-needle aspiration cytology. The average ROM for FNs with and without NIFTPs was 28% and 25%, respectively

CONCLUSIONS

According to our rate of 1.9% for NIFTPs on reappraisal for resected nodules, this entity is likely to be less frequent in the pediatric population due to the higher prevalence of PTCs and/or more aggressive variants. NIFTPs do not appear to affect the ROM for The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology categories in the pediatric population. However, large-scale studies are necessary to determine whether NIFTPs could affect the pediatric population. Cancer Cytopathol 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

http://ift.tt/2ygl7Vo

FNA smears of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are superior to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue as a source of DNA: Comparison of targeted KRAS amplification and genotyping in matched preresection and postresection samples

BACKGROUND

The current study was conducted to compare DNA yield, including normalization to nuclear area, DNA amplification functionality, and detection of KRAS mutations between matched fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens and pancreatic resections diagnostic of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

METHODS

A retrospective sample of 30 matched single FNA smears and macrodissected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) curls (2 5-μm curls) were compared by measuring the following: nuclear area (via digital image analysis), DNA yield (via NanoDrop spectrophotometry and Quantus fluorometry), and polymerase chain reaction threshold cycles for KRAS amplifications. Variants in KRAS codons 12/13 and 61 were detected by fluorescent melt curve analyses, followed by Sanger DNA sequencing.

RESULTS

Despite a similar nuclear area, FNA smears yielded greater DNA per nuclear area via 2 DNA quantification methods. KRAS codon 12 mutations were detected in 23 of 30 FNA specimens (77%) compared with 17 of 30 matched FFPE specimens (57%), for a concordance rate of 74%. No KRAS codon 13 or 61 mutations were detected.

CONCLUSIONS

FNA specimens are a more optimal source of DNA, and represent an important resource in the preresection and postresection molecular analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Cytopathol 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

http://ift.tt/2wQVl8O

Squash cytology findings of subependymomas: A report of three cases and differential diagnosis

Abstract

Subependymomas are slowly growing glial tumors, corresponding to WHO grade I. Few descriptions of the cytologic features of this neoplasm are available. This study describes the cytologic features of three subependymomas, as well as their differential diagnosis based on cytology. Three men, aged 52, 56, and 63 years, presented with headache. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a nodular intraventricular mass in all three patients. Intraoperative squash cytology specimens from the three intraventricular tumors showed nodular clusters with microcystic changes. Nuclei were round to oval in shape, but showed no evidence of severe nuclear atypia or mitoses. Histological examination showed features of subependymoma. Squash cytology findings, including nodular clusters, mild cellular atypia, microcystic changes, and mucoid material, are useful in the rapid intraoperative diagnosis of subependymoma.

http://ift.tt/2gdqiAT

Cyto-histological correlation of Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion associated renal cell carcinoma: Report of a case with review of literature

The MiT family translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are relatively rare in comparison to the conventional RCC. The cytologic features overlap with conventional clear cell RCC and papillary RCCs, thereby making the diagnosis extremely challenging. Here, we describe a case of TFE3 translocation associated RCC in a 58-year-old patient, with emphasis on cytomorphologic features and clues toward this diagnostic entity. Correlating the cytohistologic findings and review of touch imprints revealed that presence of hyaline nodules resembling leisegang rings and psammoma bodies in cytologic smears from kidney tumors serve as an important clue in raising a suspicion for the diagnosis of MiT family translocation RCCs.

http://ift.tt/2i4xPTb

The clinical performance of computer-assisted liquid-based cytology, primary hrHPV screening, and cotesting at a Turkish Tertiare Care Hospital

Background

We aimed to compare the performance of computer-assisted liquid-based cytology, primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening, and cytology-hrHPV cotesting with regards to the detection rate of cervical cancer precursor lesions.

Methods

A total of 22,653 computer-assisted liquid-based cytology specimens interpreted between 2013 and 2015 were included in the study. We compared the false-negative rates and sensitivities for computer-assisted liquid-based cytology, primary hrHPV screening and cytology-hrHPV cotesting among women with normal and abnormal cytologies. Among 1,748 women who had undergone cotesting, 249 underwent follow-up biopsies.

Results

For detecting biopsy-confirmed high-grade lesions, the sensitivities of using hrHPV, Pap tests, and cytology-hrHPV cotesting were 90.67%, 88%, and 98.67%, respectively, while the false-negative rates for hrHPV and Pap tests were 9.3% and 12%, respectively. The false negative rate for cotesting was only 1.3%.

Conclusion

Based on the significantly high sensitivity and lower false-negative rates achieved, we conclude that the combination of cytologic screening with hrHPV testing is the best preferred strategy for detection of cervical precursor lesions in our country’s conditions.

http://ift.tt/2gzD2PB

Enigma of scapular foramen and tunnels: an untold story

Abstract

              <span> 
                </span><h3>Purpose</h3> 
                <p>The study was undertaken to make a qualitative and quantitative assessment of unnamed foramen and tunnels in adult human scapulae with aid of plain and contrast radiographs.</p> 

              <span> 
                </span><h3>Materials and methods</h3> 
                <p>A total of 120 dry bones, 60 each of the right and the left side were included in the study. Distribution of these foramina and tunnels was noted for their number, side, location, course and communication. Their morphometry was done using Vernier’s caliper.</p> 

              <span> 
                </span><h3>Results</h3> 
                <p>Incidence of scapular foramina was 7.5% (<em>R</em> &gt; <em>L</em>), whereas scapular tunnels were seen in 15.8% cases. Incidence of the sinuous, curved, and straight tunnels was found to be 50, 39, and 10.7% respectively. Left-sided tunnels were longer than the right ones. Plain and contrast radiographs were taken to confirm the findings.</p> 

              <span> 
                </span><h3>Conclusion</h3> 
                <p>Anatomy literature describes only two scapular foramina, namely, nutrient foramen and suprascapular foramen/notch in a great zeal; occurrence of such anonymous foramina is hardly discussed. Through this study, there is an endeavor towards unfolding the mystery of scapular foramina in terms of their morphometry and distribution, the knowledge of which will aid clinicians, forensic experts, and surgeons in better diagnosis and management of clinical cases.</p> 
              <br /><br />

http://ift.tt/2yFcEhC

Enigma of scapular foramen and tunnels: an untold story

Abstract

              <span> 
                </span><h3>Purpose</h3> 
                <p>The study was undertaken to make a qualitative and quantitative assessment of unnamed foramen and tunnels in adult human scapulae with aid of plain and contrast radiographs.</p> 

              <span> 
                </span><h3>Materials and methods</h3> 
                <p>A total of 120 dry bones, 60 each of the right and the left side were included in the study. Distribution of these foramina and tunnels was noted for their number, side, location, course and communication. Their morphometry was done using Vernier’s caliper.</p> 

              <span> 
                </span><h3>Results</h3> 
                <p>Incidence of scapular foramina was 7.5% (<em>R</em> &gt; <em>L</em>), whereas scapular tunnels were seen in 15.8% cases. Incidence of the sinuous, curved, and straight tunnels was found to be 50, 39, and 10.7% respectively. Left-sided tunnels were longer than the right ones. Plain and contrast radiographs were taken to confirm the findings.</p> 

              <span> 
                </span><h3>Conclusion</h3> 
                <p>Anatomy literature describes only two scapular foramina, namely, nutrient foramen and suprascapular foramen/notch in a great zeal; occurrence of such anonymous foramina is hardly discussed. Through this study, there is an endeavor towards unfolding the mystery of scapular foramina in terms of their morphometry and distribution, the knowledge of which will aid clinicians, forensic experts, and surgeons in better diagnosis and management of clinical cases.</p> 
              <br /><br />

http://ift.tt/2yFcEhC

Cytomorphological spectrum of epididymal nodules: An institution’s experience

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Jyotsna Naresh Bharti, Biswajit Dey, Jenna Bhattacharya, Shyama Jain

CytoJournal 2017 14(1):26-26

Background: Epididymal lesions are uncommon in clinical practice. Few case series has been described in the literature documenting the role of cytology in the evaluation of epididymal nodules. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytomorphology of epididymal nodules and to evaluate role of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in early definitive diagnosis of epididymal nodules. Materials and Methods: A total of seventy cases of epididymal nodules were aspirated over a period of 6 years in the Department of Pathology. These cases were taken from the cytology record as a part of this study. The aspiration was performed using 22/23-gauge needle. Smears were stained with May-Grunwald-Giemsa and Papanicolaou stains. Special stains and immunocytochemistry were performed, wherever required. Results: The cytological features were adequate to establish the diagnosis in sixty cases. The lesions diagnosed were tuberculosis 16 (22.85%), spermatoceles 12 (17.14%), benign cystic lesion 8 (11.42%), encysted hydrocele 8 (11.42%), acute suppurative lesion 6 (8.57%), filariasis 4 (5.71%), chronic epididymitis 3 (4.28%), nodular fasciitis 1 (1.42%), epidermal inclusion cyst 1 (1.42%), and cystic adenomatoid tumor 1 (1.42%). Ten cases were inadequate to establish the diagnosis. FNAB was useful in diagnosis of 86% of cases. Infectious lesions of the epididymis were more common than neoplastic lesions. Patients with infection responded well to medical treatment. Conclusions: FNAB is an easily available technique for palpable lesions of epididymis, and it helps in making an early, near definitive diagnosis of epididymal lesions. It also helps to avoid unnecessary surgical interventions and helps in timely management.

http://ift.tt/2ybDbTh