Do antiplatelet drugs increase the risk of bleeding after tooth extraction? A case-crossover study

Publication date: Available online 26 June 2017
Source:International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Author(s): F. Akhlaghi, I. Khaheshi, S. Amirhassani, R. Tabrizi
The aim of this study was to assess the risk of bleeding after tooth extraction in patients taking aspirin or clopidogrel. This case-crossover study evaluated patients taking aspirin (80mg/day) or clopidogrel (75mg/day) and undergoing tooth extraction. In the first session, extraction was performed without discontinuing aspirin (group 1) or clopidogrel (group 2). In the second session, patients ceased using antiplatelet drugs 5days prior to tooth extraction. Bleeding was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS) for 72h after tooth extraction. The platelet function assay (PFA) was performed for group 1 and flow cytometry assessment of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) was performed for group 2, in both sessions. Thirty-eight patients were studied: 20 in group 1 and 18 in group 2. Analysis of the data did not demonstrate any difference in bleeding severity between sessions 1 and 2 in either group (P>0.05). There was a significant difference between sessions 1 and 2 in group 1 for the mean collagen/epinephrine membrane closure time (PFA) (P=0.001). A significant difference in platelet reactivity index (flow cytometry for VASP) was noted between sessions 1 and 2 in group 2 (P=0.001). According to this case-crossover study, dental extraction can be performed safely without withdrawal of aspirin or clopidogrel.

http://ift.tt/2ud5Qlc

Intraoral vertico-sagittal ramus osteotomy: modification of the L-shaped osteotomy

Publication date: Available online 26 June 2017
Source:International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Author(s): J. Iwanaga, S. Kikuta, M. Nakamura, A. Koba, K. Ogata, S. Toyofuku, R.S. Tubbs, J. Kusukawa
The sagittal split ramus osteotomy and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy carry the potential risk of postoperative nerve paralysis, bleeding, and fracture and dislocation of the condyle. In 1992, Choung first described the intraoral vertico-sagittal ramus osteotomy for the purpose of avoiding postoperative dislocation of the condyle. However, there is still potential for damaging the inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary artery with this technique. The authors have developed a modified technique to minimize these risks. An evaluation of surgical experience and patient outcomes with the use of this technique is presented herein. One hundred twenty-two sides in 97 Japanese patients diagnosed with a jaw deformity were analyzed. This technique includes a horizontal osteotomy that is performed at a higher position than in the original Choung procedure. Intraoperatively, there was no unexpected bleeding from the operative site. Proximal segment dislocation from the glenoid fossa was observed on one side (0.82%). Non-union of the osteotomy was not observed in any patient. Intraoperative fracture of the coronoid process occurred in 2.46%, but none necessitated treatment of the fracture. Nerve dysfunction was found in 2.46% at the 12-month postoperative follow-up. The modified technique presented herein was developed to reduce postoperative nerve dysfunction and intraoperative hemorrhage.

http://ift.tt/2tfZoMV

The application of a delayed expansion technique for horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation in dental implantation

Publication date: Available online 26 June 2017
Source:International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Author(s): X. Li, P. Xu, X. Xu, S. Liu
The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of delayed expansion of the alveolar ridge in dental implantation. This method avoids the need to harvest autogenous bone and the requirement to fix a block with screws, and could help prevent the uncontrolled fracture and avascular necrosis that may result from the traditional alveolar split. Eighteen patients and 43 implants were included in this retrospective study. The width of the alveolar ridge was measured before implantation, immediately after implantation, and after the final restoration. The width increased significantly after the insertion of implants and decreased slightly after bone remodelling. Overall, the width of the alveolar ridge increased by 2.37±1.44mm on average, ranging from −0.20mm to 5.75mm. The results suggest the use of delayed expansion for horizontal alveolar bone augmentation; however, the maxillary premolar area may not be a suitable site.

http://ift.tt/2ud5POa

Proteases, actinidin, papain and trypsin reduce oral biofilm on the tongue in elderly subjects and in vitro

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Publication date: October 2017
Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 82
Author(s): Naho Mugita, Takayuki Nambu, Kazuya Takahashi, Pao-Li Wang, Yutaka Komasa
ObjectiveDental plaque is a causative factor for oral disease and a potential reservoir for respiratory infection in the elderly. Therefore, there is a critical need for the development of effective methods to remove oral biofilm. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of proteases on oral biofilm formation andremoval.DesignThe in vivo effect of actinidin, a cysteine protease, on the removal of tongue coating was assessed after orally taking a protease tablet. Effects of the proteases trypsin, papain and actinidin on Actinomyces monospecies biofilm and multispecies biofilm that was reconstructed using a plaque sample from the tongue coating were investigated using the microtiter plate method. Antimicrobial tests and limited proteolysis of fimbrial shaft proteins were also performed to clarify underlying mechanisms of oral biofilm removal.ResultsTablets containing actinidin removed tongue coating in elderly subjects. Oral Actinomyces biofilm was significantly reduced by the proteases papain, actinidin and trypsin. Papain and trypsin effectively digested the major fimbrial proteins, FimP and FimA, from Actinomyces. Actinidin, papain and trypsin reduced multispecies biofilm that was reconstructed in vitro. Papain and trypsin inhibited formation of multispecies biofilm in vitro.ConclusionsThis study shows that proteases reduced oral biofilm in vivo in elderly subjects and in vitro, and suggests that protease digests fimbriae and inhibits biofilm formation.

http://ift.tt/2sMnm1D

Do antiplatelet drugs increase the risk of bleeding after tooth extraction? A case-crossover study

The aim of this study was to assess the risk of bleeding after tooth extraction in patients taking aspirin or clopidogrel. This case-crossover study evaluated patients taking aspirin (80mg/day) or clopidogrel (75mg/day) and undergoing tooth extraction. In the first session, extraction was performed without discontinuing aspirin (group 1) or clopidogrel (group 2). In the second session, patients ceased using antiplatelet drugs 5days prior to tooth extraction. Bleeding was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS) for 72h after tooth extraction.

http://ift.tt/2schnEF

The application of a delayed expansion technique for horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation in dental implantation

The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of delayed expansion of the alveolar ridge in dental implantation. This method avoids the need to harvest autogenous bone and the requirement to fix a block with screws, and could help prevent the uncontrolled fracture and avascular necrosis that may result from the traditional alveolar split. Eighteen patients and 43 implants were included in this retrospective study. The width of the alveolar ridge was measured before implantation, immediately after implantation, and after the final restoration.

http://ift.tt/2sVZ8k1

Intraoral vertico-sagittal ramus osteotomy: modification of the L-shaped osteotomy

The sagittal split ramus osteotomy and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy carry the potential risk of postoperative nerve paralysis, bleeding, and fracture and dislocation of the condyle. In 1992, Choung first described the intraoral vertico-sagittal ramus osteotomy for the purpose of avoiding postoperative dislocation of the condyle. However, there is still potential for damaging the inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary artery with this technique. The authors have developed a modified technique to minimize these risks.

http://ift.tt/2sbZBla