LEI0258 microsatellite variability and its association with humoral and cell mediated immune responses in broiler chickens


Publication date: October 2017
Source:Molecular Immunology, Volume 90
Author(s): Atefeh Esmailnejad, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni, Maryam Badavam
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has a profound influence on disease resistance or susceptibility, productivity and important economic traits in chicken. Association of the MHC with a wide range of immune responses makes it a valuable predictive factor for the disease pathogenesis and outcome. The tandem repeat LEI0258 is a genetic marker which is located within the B locus of chicken MHC and strongly associated with serologically defined haplotypes. LEI0258 microsatellite marker was applied to investigate the MHC polymorphism in Ross 308 broiler chicken (N=104). Association of LEI0258 alleles with humoral and cell mediated immune responses to Newcastle disease (ND), Infectious bursal disease (IBD) and Avian influenza (AI) vaccines were also examined. LEI0258 polymorphism was determined by PCR-based fragment analysis, and association of LEI0258 alleles with immune responses were evaluated using multivariate regression analysis and GLM procedures. A total of seven alleles ranging from 195 to 448bp were found, including two novel alleles (263 and 362bp) that were unique in Ross 308 broiler population. Association study revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on humoral and cellular immune responses in Ross population (P<0.05). Alleles 385 and 448bp were associated with increased peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation response. Alleles 300, 362 and 448bp had a positive effect on immune responses to Infectious bursal disease vaccine, and allele 263bp was significantly correlated with elevated antibody titer against Newcastle disease vaccine. Results obtained from this study confirmed the important role of MHC as a candidate gene marker for immune responses that could be used in genetic improvement of disease-resistant traits and resource conservation in broiler population.


Activating transcription factor 3 protects mice against pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced acute lung injury by interacting with lipopolysaccharide binding protein


Publication date: October 2017
Source:Molecular Immunology, Volume 90
Author(s): Yunfeng Zhao, Xiulin Wu, Lanlan Qian, Liang Guo, Jiangrong Liao, Xueling Wu
Excessive inflammatory response is critical event in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Previous study has shown that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) plays a role in downregulate inflammatory responses including ventilation-induced ALI. We hypothesized that ATF3 have a protective effect in ALI induced by pseudomonas aeruginosa. PA was intra-tracheally administrated to ATF3 knock-out (KO) mice to establish ALI model. Inflammatory factors, BALF protein, lung wet to dry ratio, lung injury score and mortality were determined. The activation of NF-κB was detected by western blot and Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-ip) was used to determinate the binding of ATF3 to LBP. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from ATF3 KO mice and stimulated by PA. PA increased the expression of ATF3 in the lung tissues in ATF3 wild type (WT) mice. ATF3 deficiency significantly increased the concentration of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β in the supernatant of peritoneal macrophages, lung tissue and BALF after PA stimulation and also enhanced the activity of NF-κB. ATF3 deficiency also enhanced the BALF protein concentration and increased the lung wet to dry ratio. The lung injury score and mortality were higher in ATF3 KO mice treated with PA. Moreover, ATF3 was demonstrated to bind to LBP These finding suggest ATF3 protect mice against ALI induced by PA partly due to the binding to LBP.


Fibroblast-derived exosomes promote epithelial cell proliferation through TGF-β2 signaling pathway in severe asthma



Bronchial fibroblasts play a key role in airway remodeling in asthma. They regulate epithelial cell functions such as proliferation through growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and exosomes. The role of exosomes in the communication between epithelial cells and fibroblasts by vehiculing these mediators in asthma remains to be determined.


To evaluate the role of exosomes released by bronchial fibroblasts on epithelial cell proliferation in severe asthma.


Exosomes were obtained from culture media of primary bronchial fibroblasts and characterized using Western blot, electron microscopy and flow cytometry. Uptake profile of fluorescent-labeled exosomes in epithelial cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Exosome cytokine content was analysed by Cytokine Arrays. Bronchial epithelial cell proliferation was evaluated by BrdU incorporation test. Exosomes biogenesis/release was blocked by using sphingomyelinase inhibitor. Plasmid transfection was used to modulate TGF-β2 gene expression.


We showed that bronchial fibroblasts secreted exosomes, which were internalized by bronchial epithelial cells. Exosomes of severe asthmatic subjects’ fibroblasts showed a lower level of TGF-β2 and significantly increased the epithelial cells proliferation of both healthy and severe asthmatic subjects compared to healthy controls’ exosomes. Overexpression of TGF-β2 in severe asthmatics’ fibroblasts induced enhanced TGF-β2 in exosomes leading to a reduced proliferation of epithelial cells, whereas knockdown of TGF-β2 enhanced epithelial cell proliferation.


Our study shows that exosomes are involved in fine-tuning intercellular communication in asthma. Exosomes of severe eosinophilic asthmatics’ fibroblasts can contribute to airway remodeling, at least in part, by modulating epithelial cell proliferation observed in severe asthma.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children


                  </span><h3>Purpose of Review</h3> 
                  <p>EoE is a significant cause of gastrointestinal morbidity affecting 1:2000. Patients with EoE typically have multiple atopic comorbidities, and additionally, many patients with EoE can be controlled well with elimination diets. The purpose of this review is to summarize the care of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis patients.</p> 

                  </span><h3>Recent Findings</h3> 
                  <p>EoE represents a distinct clinical syndrome which is characterized by esophageal dysfunction and eosinophil-predominant inflammation of the esophageal mucosa. Patients with EoE can present with varying symptoms depending on their age; in this review, we review the presenting features of eosinophilic esophagitis in children as well as a diagnostic algorithm for EoE. The mucosal inflammation in EoE is driven by exposure to food antigens in many patients with EoE. Therefore, for the majority of patients, the mainstays of treatment remain food elimination diets or swallowed steroids.</p> 

                  <p>This review summarizes the diagnostic approach to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in pediatric patients, focusing on the importance of accurate diagnosis and selection of appropriate therapy.</p> 
                <br /><br />


Different hypersensitivities against homologous proteins of MGL_1304 in patients with atopic dermatitis

Publication date: Available online 24 June 2017
Source:Allergology International
Author(s): Takuma Kohsaka, Takaaki Hiragun, Kaori Ishii, Makiko Hiragun, Akiko Kamegashira, Michihiro Hide
BackgroundAtopic dermatitis (AD) is exacerbated by sweating, and the skin of most patients with AD are resided by Malassezia (M.) fungi. Recently, MGL_1304 produced by Malasseziaglobosa was identified as the major histamine releasing antigen in human sweat.MethodsThe full length cDNA of the counterpart of MGL_1304 in Malasseziarestricta (Mala r 8), was cloned by degenerate PCR and rapid identification of cDNA ends (RACE). Recombinant MGL_1304, and its counterparts, Mala s 8 (produced by Malasseziasympodialis) and Mala r 8 were prepared, and compared in their allergenicities by dot blot analysis and histamine release tests with sera and basophils of patients with AD.ResultsThe identities between MGL_1304 and Mala s 8, MGL_1304 and Mala r 8, and Mala s 8 and Mala r 8 were 68%, 78%, and 76%, respectively, in protein sequences. Dot blot analysis revealed that the level of IgE binding to Mala s 8 was higher than that of MGL_1304. However, histamine release tests revealed that MGL_1304 and Mala r 8 possessed higher activity than Mala s 8. In addition, the crude lysate of M. globosa showed higher histamine release ability than that of M. sympodialis.ConclusionsPatients with AD showed hypersensitivities against MGL_1304 and its homologs. However, the allergenicities of the homologs are variable and the histamine release activities may be different from the solid-phase binding activities for IgE. Sweat allergy should be carefully evaluated with biological activities of MGL_1304 and its homologs of other Malassezia fungi residing on the skin.


MD-2 regulates LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1beta secretion by a MyD88/NF-κB-dependent pathway in alveolar macrophages cell line


Publication date: October 2017
Source:Molecular Immunology, Volume 90
Author(s): Man Luo, Lijuan Hu, Dandan Li, Yanying Wang, Yuting He, Lei Zhu, Weiying Ren
Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is required in the recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and participates in LPS-induced alveolar macrophage (AM) inflammation during acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome aggravates inflammation in LPS-induced ALI. However, there is currently little known about the relationship between MD-2 signaling and the NLRP3 inflammasome. This study showed that NLRP3 expression, IL-1beta (IL-1β) secretion, and pyroptosis were up-regulated after LPS stimulation in the NR8383 AM cell-line. MD-2 gene knock-down reduced LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β secretion in NR8383 cells, and inhibited the MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. Conversely, over-expression of MD-2 not only heightened NLRP3, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 protein expression, it also aggravated the LPS-induced inflammatory response. Furthermore, the NF-κB inhibitor SN50 had a beneficial role in decreasing NLRP3 and caspase-1 mRNA and protein expression. The observations suggest that MD-2 helps to regulate LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the inflammatory response in NR8383 cells, and likely does so by affecting MyD88/NF-κB signaling.