Effect of various durations of smoking cessation on postoperative outcomes: A retrospective cohort analysis.

BACKGROUND: Preoperative smoking cessation is commonly advised in an effort to improve postoperative outcomes. However, it remains unclear for how long smoking cessation is necessary, and even whether a brief preoperative period of abstinence is helpful and well tolerated.

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated associations between various periods of preoperative smoking cessation and major morbidity and death.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis.

SETTING: Adults who had noncardiac surgery at the Cleveland Clinic Main Campus between May 2007 and December 2013.

PATIENTS: A total of 37 511 patients whose smoking history was identified from a preoperative Health Quest questionnaire. Of these patients, 26 269 (70%) were former smokers and 11 242 (30%) were current smokers. Of the current smokers, 9482 (84%) were propensity matched with 9482 former smokers (36%). We excluded patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists’ physical status exceeding four, patients who did not have general anaesthesia, and patients with missing outcomes and/or covariables. When multiple procedures were performed within the study period, only the first operation for each patient was included in the analysis.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The relationship between smoking cessation and in-hospital morbidity/mortality.

RESULTS: The incidence of the primary composite of in-hospital morbidity/mortality was 6.9% (656/9482) for all former smokers; the incidence was 7.8% (152/1951) for patients who stopped smoking less than 1 year before surgery, 6.3% (118/1977) for 1 to 5 years, 7.2% (115/1596) for 5 to 10 years and 6.9% (271/3457) for more than 10 years.

CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation was associated with reduced in-hospital morbidity and mortality which was independent of cessation interval.

(C) 2017 European Society of Anaesthesiology

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The Efficacy of Peripheral Opioid Antagonists in Opioid-Induced Constipation and Postoperative Ileus: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

Opioid-induced constipation has a negative impact on quality of life for patients with chronic pain and can affect more than a third of patients. A related but separate entity is postoperative ileus, which is an abnormal pattern of gastrointestinal motility after surgery. Nonselective [mu]-opioid receptor antagonists reverse constipation and opioid-induced ileus but cross the blood-brain barrier and may reverse analgesia. Peripherally acting [mu]-opioid receptor antagonists target the [mu]-opioid receptor without reversing analgesia. Three such agents are US Food and Drug Administration approved. We reviewed the literature for randomized controlled trials that studied the efficacy of alvimopan, methylnaltrexone, and naloxegol in treating either opioid-induced constipation or postoperative ileus. Peripherally acting [mu]-opioid receptor antagonists may be effective in treating both opioid-induced bowel dysfunction and postoperative ileus, but definitive conclusions are not possible because of study inconsistency and the relatively low quality of evidence. Comparisons of agents are difficult because of heterogeneous end points and no head-to-head studies.

Copyright (C) 2017 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

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Bleeding and Neurologic Complications in 58,000 Interventional Pain Procedures.

Background and Objectives: Interventional pain procedures are commonly performed on patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. However, there is limited evidence to support or refute the safety of this practice. The goal of this investigation was to assess the rate of bleeding complications in a large cohort of patients undergoing intermediate- and low-risk pain procedures, with a specific focus on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medication use and baseline coagulation abnormalities.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of adult patients undergoing low- and intermediate-risk pain procedures from 2005 through 2014 by the division of pain medicine at a single academic tertiary care center. Baseline characteristics, antiplatelet and anticoagulant medication use, coagulation parameters, and procedural details were extracted from the electronic medical record. The primary outcome was a bleeding-related complication requiring emergency medicine, neurology, or neurosurgical evaluation within 31 days. The secondary outcome was the presence or absence of a periprocedural red blood cell transfusion occurring within 72 hours of needle placement.

Results: A total of 58,066 procedures were performed on 24,590 unique patients. Preprocedural aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy was present for 17,825 procedures (30.7%). Sixteen procedures were associated with perioperative red blood cell transfusion (0.03%), with no difference based on preprocedural nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, including aspirin, or other anticoagulation use (P = 0.107). Five patients (0.009%) had a neurologic complication requiring further evaluation, of which 2 were likely related to procedural bleeding.

Conclusions: Bleeding complications are rare in patients undergoing low- or intermediate-risk pain procedures even in the presence of antiplatelet medications. This is consistent with recently released guidelines.

Copyright (C) 2017 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

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Pectoral Fascial (PECS) I and II Blocks as Rescue Analgesia in a Patient Undergoing Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery.

Introduction: Patients undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery have the potential for significant pain from the thoracotomy site. We report the successful use of pectoral nerve block types I and II (Pecs I and II) as rescue analgesia in a patient undergoing minimally invasive mitral valve repair.

Case Report: In this case, a 78-year-old man, with no history of chronic pain, underwent mitral valve repair via right anterior thoracotomy for severe mitral regurgitation. After extubation, he complained of 10/10 pain at the incision site that was minimally responsive to intravenous opioids. He required supplemental oxygen because of poor pulmonary mechanics, with shallow breathing and splinting due to pain, and subsequent intensive care unit readmission. Ultrasound-guided Pecs I and II blocks were performed on the right side with 30 mL of 0.2% ropivacaine with 1:400,000 epinephrine. The blocks resulted in near-complete chest wall analgesia and improved pulmonary mechanics for approximately 24 hours. After the single-injection blocks regressed, a second set of blocks was performed with 266 mg of liposomal bupivacaine mixed with bupivacaine. This second set of blocks provided extended analgesia for an additional 48 hours. The patient was weaned rapidly from supplemental oxygen after the blocks because of improved analgesia.

Conclusions: Pectoral nerve blocks have been described in the setting of breast surgery to provide chest wall analgesia. We report the first successful use of Pecs blocks to provide effective chest wall analgesia for a patient undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery with thoracotomy. We believe that these blocks may provide an important nonopioid option for the management of pain during recovery from minimally invasive cardiac surgery.

Copyright (C) 2017 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

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