Catheter-related right internal jugular vein thrombosis after chest surgery


Background: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are frequently used for monitoring haemodynamic status and rapidly delivering fluid therapy during the peri- and postoperative periods. Indwelling CVCs are typically used 7–14 days postoperatively for additional monitoring and treatment, but patients may develop asymptomatic catheter-related thrombosis, leading to life-threatening pulmonary embolism and death. Early detection helps to avoid such complications.Methods: This prospective observational study investigated the risk factors associated with catheter-related right internal jugular vein thrombosis in patients undergoing chest surgery. The study enrolled 24 patients who were scheduled to receive chest surgeries during which catheters were needed. To detect thrombus formation, Doppler ultrasound examinations from the thyroid cartilage level to the supraclavicular region were used after CVC placement and on each of the following days until the catheter was removed.Results: No thrombosis was found in patients before surgery, but it appeared in 75% (18/24) after surgery. The risks of thrombosis increased with a longer duration of anaesthesia, greater amounts of bleeding, and use of postoperative ventilator support.Conclusions: Earlier catheter removal may reduce the risk of catheter-related thrombosis and avoid possibly fatal complications after catheter-related thrombosis.

Checklists, cognitive aids, and the future of patient safety

On Wednesday, October 30, 1935, an evaluation flight of the Boeing Model 299 was undertaken at Wright Field, northeast of Dayton, OH, USA. The Model 299 was the most technologically sophisticated aircraft of its time and was nicknamed the Flying Fortress because of the extent of its armaments. Major Ployer P. Hill was the pilot, and it was his first flight in the new aircraft. The aircraft appeared to ascend normally, but suddenly stalled, turned on one wing, and crashed, killing two of the aircraft’s five crew, including Major Hill. The investigation into the crash discovered that Major Hill had omitted a crucial step during the preflight preparation; he forgot to release a catch, which on the ground locked the aircraft’s control flaps.1 Once in the air, this mistake rendered the aircraft uncontrollable. The crash investigators knew that there was probably no one better qualified to fly the new aircraft than Major Hill—his co-pilot was also highly qualified—yet despite this, the fatal error was still made. The investigators concluded that given the experience of the pilots, further training would not be an effective response to prevent such an event from happening again; a response that is very different from that which often occurs in health care when a mistake is made.2 Some commentators initially believed that this meant the new aircraft was simply too complicated to fly reliably. A new approach was needed, and it took the form of a simple list of crucial tasks that must be completed before the aircraft could leave the ground. The first aviation checklist had been devised.1 With the checklist in use, despite the aircraft’s sophistication, the Model 299 (and later versions of it) performed safely for many years.

The Implementation of a Preoperative Transthoracic Echocardiography Consult Service by Anesthesiologists.

We describe a preoperative transthoracic echocardiography consult service led by anesthesiologists. The implementation process and the patient cohort are described. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiographic examinations were mostly performed in patients undergoing intermediate- or high-risk noncardiac surgery and in patients with a higher calculated mortality risk. All transthoracic echocardiographic examinations were interpreted by anesthesiologists.

(C) 2017 International Anesthesia Research Society

Physiologic Considerations in Trauma Patients Undergoing Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta.

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta is a new procedure for adjunctive management of critically injured patients with noncompressible torso or pelvic hemorrhage who are in refractory hemorrhagic shock, ie, bleeding to death. The anesthesiologist plays a critical role in management of these patients, from initial evaluation in the trauma bay to definitive care in the operating room and the critical care unit. A comprehensive understanding of the effects of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta is essential to making it an effective component of hemostatic resuscitation.

(C) 2017 International Anesthesia Research Society

A Standardized Approach for Transfusion Medicine Support in Patients With Morbidly Adherent Placenta.

BACKGROUND: The incidence of placenta accreta (PA) has increased from 0.8 to 3.0 in 1000 pregnancies, driven by increased rates of cesarean deliveries (32.2% in 2014) of births in the United States. The average blood loss for a delivery complicated by PA ranges from 2000 to 5000 mL, frequently requiring substantial transfusion medicine support. We report our own institutional multidisciplinary approach for managing such patients, along with transfusion medicine outcomes, in this setting over a 5-year period.

METHODS: We reviewed records for patients referred to our program in placental disorders from July 1, 2009, to July 1, 2014. A placental disorders preoperative checklist was implemented to ensure optimal management of patients with peripartum hemorrhage.

RESULTS: Of 136 patients whose placentas were reviewed postpartum, 21 had PA, 39 had microscopic PA, 17 had increta, 17 had percreta, and 42 had no accreta (of which 11 had placenta previa). For each subtype, the percentage of patients receiving blood products were 71% (PA), 28% (microscopic PA), 82% (increta), 82% (percreta), and 19% (no accreta). Among patients with PA or variants, 89% of patients with PA or variants underwent postpartum hysterectomy, compared to only 5% of patients with no or microscopic PA.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on our experience and on the findings of our retrospective analysis, patients presenting with either antepartum radiological evidence or clinical suspicion of morbidly adherent placenta will benefit from a standardized protocol for clinical management, including transfusion medicine support. We found that massive hemorrhage is predictable when abnormal placentation is identified predelivery and that blood product support is substantial regardless of the degree of placental invasiveness. The protocol at our institution provides immediate access to sufficient volumes and types of blood products at delivery for patients at highest risk for life-threatening obstetric hemorrhage. Therefore, for patients with a diagnosis of morbidly adherent placenta scheduled for planned cesarean delivery with possible hysterectomy, a programmatic checklist that mobilizes a multidisciplinary team, including proactive transfusion medicine support, represents best practices.

(C) 2017 International Anesthesia Research Society

Perioperative Venous Thromboembolism: A Review.

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant problem in the perioperative period, increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. It is also considered the most preventable of the major postoperative complications. Despite widespread adoption of prophylaxis guidelines, it appears that morbidity from the disease has not substantially changed within the past 2 decades. It is becoming clear that current prophylaxis efforts are not sufficient. Using more potent anticoagulants may decrease the incidence of VTE, but increase the risk for bleeding and infection. Much has been learned about the pathophysiology of venous thrombogenesis in recent years. Beyond the “traditional coagulation cascade,” which anticoagulants modulate, there is a growing appreciation for the roles of tissue factor, monocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil extracellular traps, microvesicles, and platelets in thrombus initiation and propagation. These recent studies explain to some degree why aspirin appears to be remarkably effective in preventing thrombus propagation. Endothelial dysfunction, traditionally thought of as a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, plays an important role within the cusps of venous valves, a unique environment where the majority of venous thrombi originate. This suggests a role for newer treatment modalities such as statins. Not all patients have an equal likelihood of experiencing a VTE, even when undergoing high-risk procedures, and better tools are required to accurately predict VTE risk. Only then will we be able to effectively individualize prophylaxis by balancing the risks for VTE against the risks associated with treatment. Given the different cell types and pathways involved in thrombogenesis, it is likely that multimodal treatment regimens will be more effective, enabling the use of lower and safer doses of hemostatic modulating therapies such as anticoagulants, antithrombotics, and antiplatelet medications.

(C) 2017 International Anesthesia Research Society

A retrospective observational cohort study investigating the association between acute kidney injury and all-cause mortality among patients undergoing endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms


                <p>Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been found to be associated with short- and long-term mortality and morbidity in various clinical settings. However, it is unknown whether AKI after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) is associated with postoperative mortality.</p> 

                <p>This observational study analyzed patients who underwent EVAR. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The outcomes of patients with and without postoperative AKI were compared using the Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test. Factors with <em>P</em> &lt; 0.05 on the univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate Cox regression model. Predictors of AKI were also determined using Cox univariate and multivariate analysis. The identified predictors of AKI were excluded from multivariate analysis for all-cause mortality because these factors could intermediate outcome.</p> 

                <p>There were 490 eligible patients. After a follow-up of 28.3 (16.8) months [mean (standard deviation)], 62 patients (12.7%) died. AKI occurred in 59 patients (12.0%). AKI was found by the log-rank test to be associated with a significant increase of all-cause mortality (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001). Preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate, preoperative peripheral vascular disease, and emergency surgery were found to be independent predictors of AKI and these variables were excluded from the main analysis. Multivariate analysis showed AKI [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–3.60, <em>P</em> = 0.045] and transfusion (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.09, <em>P</em> = 0.011) were independent predictors of mortality.</p> 

                <p>In the present study, AKI and transfusion were associated with significant increases in all-cause mortality after EVAR.</p> 
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