Influence of the Polymorphism C-509T in the TGFB1 Gene Promoter on the Response to Montelukast

Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology , Vol. 0, No. 0.

http://ift.tt/2i5Lc5J

Advertisements

Isolated sphenoid sinus opacifications: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background

Isolated sphenoid sinus opacifications (ISSOs) represent a relatively uncommon disease with the potential for serious complications. To better understand this disease, we performed a systematic review to further characterize the underlying pathologies, associated symptoms, and treatment outcomes of patients with ISSOs.

Methods

A systematic review of ISSO case series was performed utilizing the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases in accordance with guidelines established by PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). Data of interest included disease pathology, associated symptoms, and treatment outcomes.

Results

Of the initial 1051 hits from the 4 databases, 17 articles, with a combined 1133 ISSO patients, were ultimately included in the review. On a weighted analysis, the underlying pathologies were classified as chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) (28.3%), mucoceles (20.3%), fungal sinusitis (12.5%), malignant neoplasms (7.7%), intracranial lesions (7.0%), benign neoplasms (5.7%), chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) (3.4%), and other lesions (4.7%). Cranial neuropathies were present in 16.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.1-22.5%) of ISSO patients. A favorable surgical complication rate of 1.5% (95% CI, −0.1% to 3.2%) was found in patients undergoing surgery for an ISSO.

Conclusion

ISSOs are caused by diverse pathologies. Given the considerable rates of neoplastic disease and cranial neuropathies, patients affected by an ISSO should be monitored closely and treated aggressively. Prompt surgical intervention, with either diagnostic or therapeutic intent, is often indicated.

http://ift.tt/2gzNzKv

In vitro safety evaluation of human nasal epithelial cell monolayers exposed to carrageenan sinus wash

Background

Carrageenans have shown to reduce the viral load in nasal secretions and lower the incidence of secondary infections in children with common cold. Despite the widespread use of carrageenans in topical applications, the effect of carrageenans on the sinonasal epithelial barrier has not been elucidated. We investigate the effect of different carrageenans on the sinonasal epithelial barrier and inflammatory response in vitro.

Methods

Iota and Kappa carrageenan delivered in saline irrigation solutions applied to air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary human nasal epithelial cells from chronic rhinosinusitis patients and controls. Epithelial barrier structure was assessed by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and immunolocalization of F actin. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF), toxicity, and inflammatory response was studied.

Results

Kappa or Iota carrageenan in the different solutions was not toxic, did not have detrimental effects on epithelial barrier structure and CBF. Rather, application of Kappa carrageenan significantly increased TEER and suppressed interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion in ALI cultures from CRS patients.

Conclusion

Kappa or Iota carrageenan solution was safe and did not negatively affect epithelial barrier function. Kappa carrageenan increased TEER and decreased IL-6 production in CRS patients, indicating positive effects on epithelial barrier function in vitro.

http://ift.tt/2i75HyY

Allergen immunotherapy: exploring areas for further inquiry

Background

Allergy-related illness impacts millions of individuals worldwide. Our objectives were to characterize current trends of clinical trials research relating to allergen immunotherapy and to describe the landscape of allergen immunotherapy in National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported research inquiry.

Methods

On ClinicalTrials.gov, the following terms were searched: allergen immunotherapy OR allergy immunotherapy. Variables, including completion status, dates, design, study population, funder, location, and allergen were recorded. The NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORTER) system was also used to gather relevant variables.

Results

A total of 372 clinical trials met inclusion criteria. The proportion of industry-funded clinical trials has declined over 15 years. There has been a slow decline in pollen allergy immunotherapy research, with an increase in both food and animal allergy immunotherapy research. Otolaryngologists comprised only 6.4% of clinical trials principal investigators (PIs). There was a total adjusted NIH funding of $74,986,125 for the 118 total funding years.

Conclusion

Despite an immense interest in allergen immunotherapy, this analysis demonstrates that otolaryngologists represented a small proportion of PIs leading associated clinical trials and basic science inquiry. The proportion of trials with industry sponsorship has declined considerably in recent decades. These trends could help direct future resource allocation for allergen immunotherapy.

http://ift.tt/2gABtRt