Comparison and Interpretability of the available Urticaria Activity Scores

Abstract

The urticaria activity score (UAS) is the gold standard for assessing disease activity in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Two different versions, the UAS7 and UAS7TD, are currently used in clinical trials and routine care. To compare both versions and to obtain data on their interpretability, 130 CSU patients applied both versions and globally rated their disease activity as none, mild, moderate, or severe. UAS7 and UAS7TD values correlated strongly (r=0.90, P<0.001). Interquartile ranges for UAS7 and UAS7TD values for mild, moderate and severe CSU were 11-20 and 10-24, 16-30 and 16-32, and 27-37 and 28-40. UAS7 values were slightly, but significantly lower as compared to UAS7TD values (mean difference: 1.6±4.6, P<0.001). This difference was driven by lower wheal subscores (2.1±3.5, P<0.001) and was most pronounced in patients with severe CSU (2.5±5.6, P<0.01). The UAS7/UAS7TD ratio was 0.96±0.21 and did not differ significantly between mild, moderate and severe CSU.

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Infant feeding patterns and eczema in children in the first 6 years of life

Abstract

Background

Modes of infant feeding such as direct and indirect breastfeeding, and formula feeding, and their combinations may play a role in child health.

Objective

The aim was to investigate which feeding patterns in the first six months pose risks for eczema/skin allergy in children up to 6 years compared to direct breastfeeding for at least 3 months.

Methods

The Infant Feeding Practices Study II in the United States and its 6-year follow-up provided data on feeding modes in infancy and doctor’s diagnosed eczema/skin allergy in the first 6 years of life (1,387 infants), based on parental reports. Different feeding patterns were identified. Log-linear models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) of feeding patterns for doctor’s diagnosed eczema/skin allergy in the first 6 years of life, adjusting for confounders.

Results

Compared to ‘direct breastfeeding for at least 3 months’ (DBF3m), the combination of direct feeding at the breast (DBF), pumping and feeding breast milk (BM), and formula (FF) in the first months’ (DBF/BM/FF) showed a statistically significant higher risk for eczema/skin allergy in the first 6 years of life (PR= 1.46), adjusting for confounders. DBF combined with BM for the first 3 months followed by mixed feeding also had an increased risk (PR=1.26), though not statistically significant. Formula feeding introduced since birth had no effect on eczema. Among the confounders, paternal eczema and race/ethnicity (Hispanic vs White) were associated with a higher risk of eczema/skin allergy.

Conclusions & Clinical Relevance

Mixed infant feeding may carry a higher risk of eczema/skin allergy compared to direct feeding at the breast. The recent epidemic of pumping and feeding in the United States and the use of mixed infant feeding modes requires additional studies to provide appropriate and renewed assessments of the risks of feeding modes for the future development of allergies.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Poor sleep is highly associated with house dust mite allergic rhinitis in adults and children

Sleep disorders are often underreported to physicians by patients with allergies. This study aimed to characterize the sleep disorders associated with respiratory allergy to house dust mites (HDM) at the time …

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The Potential for Emerging Microbiome-Mediated Therapeutics in Asthma

Abstract

                <span> 
                  </span><h3>Purpose of Review</h3> 
                  <p>In terms of immune regulating functions, analysis of the microbiome has led the development of therapeutic strategies that may be applicable to asthma management. This review summarizes the current literature on the gut and lung microbiota in asthma pathogenesis with a focus on the roles of innate molecules and new microbiome-mediated therapeutics.</p> 

                <span> 
                  </span><h3>Recent Findings</h3> 
                  <p>Recent clinical and basic studies to date have identified several possible therapeutics that can target innate immunity and the microbiota in asthma. Some of these drugs have shown beneficial effects in the treatment of certain asthma phenotypes and for protection against asthma during early life.</p> 

                <span> 
                  </span><h3>Summary</h3> 
                  <p>Current clinical evidence does not support the use of these therapies for effective treatment of asthma. The integration of the data regarding microbiota with technologic advances, such as next generation sequencing and omics offers promise. Combining comprehensive bioinformatics, new molecules and approaches may shape future asthma treatment.</p> 
                <br /><br />

http://ift.tt/2uJM2GA

The Potential for Emerging Microbiome-Mediated Therapeutics in Asthma

Abstract

                <span> 
                  </span><h3>Purpose of Review</h3> 
                  <p>In terms of immune regulating functions, analysis of the microbiome has led the development of therapeutic strategies that may be applicable to asthma management. This review summarizes the current literature on the gut and lung microbiota in asthma pathogenesis with a focus on the roles of innate molecules and new microbiome-mediated therapeutics.</p> 

                <span> 
                  </span><h3>Recent Findings</h3> 
                  <p>Recent clinical and basic studies to date have identified several possible therapeutics that can target innate immunity and the microbiota in asthma. Some of these drugs have shown beneficial effects in the treatment of certain asthma phenotypes and for protection against asthma during early life.</p> 

                <span> 
                  </span><h3>Summary</h3> 
                  <p>Current clinical evidence does not support the use of these therapies for effective treatment of asthma. The integration of the data regarding microbiota with technologic advances, such as next generation sequencing and omics offers promise. Combining comprehensive bioinformatics, new molecules and approaches may shape future asthma treatment.</p> 
                <br /><br />

http://ift.tt/2uJM2GA

How novel structures inform understanding of complement function

Abstract

              <p>During the last decade, the complement field has experienced outstanding advancements in the mechanistic understanding of how complement activators are recognized, what C3 activation means, how protein complexes like the C3 convertases and the membrane attack complex are assembled, and how positive and negative complement regulators perform their function. All of this has been made possible mostly because of the contributions of structural biology to the study of the complement components. The wealth of novel structural data has frequently provided support to previously held knowledge, but often has added alternative and unexpected insights into complement function. Here, we will review some of these findings focusing in the alternative and terminal complement pathways.</p><br /><br />

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