Cause of acute encephalitis/encephalopathy in Japanese children diagnosed by a rapid and comprehensive virological detection system and differences in their clinical presentations.
Brain Dev. 2017 Aug 08;:
Authors: Takasawa K, Nakagawa R, Takishima S, Moriyama K, Watanabe K, Kiyohara K, Hasegawa T, Shimohira M, Kashimada K, Shimizu N, Morio T
BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis/encephalopathy (AE/E) is a rare and severe complication of common childhood infections; however, a treatment strategy based on clinical and pathological evidence has not been established.
METHODS: The clinical data and aetiological results using a rapid and comprehensive virological detection system of 62 Japanese children diagnosed with AE/E from 2010 to 2014 were collected. We assessed clinical differences between causes and effectiveness of our multiplex PCR system to establish a pathogen-based treatment strategy for AE/E.
RESULTS: Suspected causes were detected in 84% of patients, and our multiplex PCR system contributed to diagnosing 38% of the patients. Furthermore, a negative virus PCR might be important for inferring underlying disease. Most cases were triggered by human herpes virus (HHV) 6/7 (32%) and influenza virus (24%). The causes of AE/E depended on age (p=0.00089) but not on sex (p=0.94). The median age of HHV6/7-associated AE/E was 2.3years, which is lower than the median ages of AE/E associated with other viruses. Major initial treatments were pulse steroid therapy (83.9%) and acyclovir (71%). Most of the patients in this study had good prognoses: 77% recovered without neurological sequalae.
CONCLUSIONS: Our virological detection system was useful for detecting the cause of AE/E, and may also contribute to construction of pathogen-based treatment strategies for AE/E. Our data indicated the possibility that early intervention with pulse steroid therapy could be effective for treating AE/E. Further investigation for selection of antiepileptic drugs and additional therapies might be required to prevent progression of AE/E.
PMID: 28801087 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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