Homology, homoplasy and cusp variability at the enamel–dentine junction of hominoid molars

Abstract

Evolutionary studies of mammalian teeth have generally concentrated on the adaptive and functional significance of dental features, whereas the role of development on phenotypic generation and as a source of variation has received comparatively little attention. The present study combines an evolutionary biological framework with state-of-the-art imaging techniques to examine the developmental basis of variation of accessory cusps. Scholars have long used the position and relatedness of cusps to other crown structures as a criterion for differentiating between developmentally homologous and homoplastic features, which can be evaluated with greater accuracy at the enamel–dentine junction (EDJ). Following this approach, we collected digital models of the EDJ and outer enamel surface of more than 1000 hominoid teeth to examine whether cusp 5 of the upper molars (UM C5) and cusps 6 and 7 of the lower molars (LM C6 and LM C7) were associated each with a common developmental origin across species. Results revealed that each of these cusps can develop in a variety of ways, in association with different dental tissues (i.e. oral epithelium, enamel matrix) and dental structures (i.e. from different cusps, crests and cingula). Both within and between species variability in cusp origin was highest in UM C5, followed by LM C7, and finally LM C6. The lack of any species-specific patterns suggests that accessory cusps in hominoids are developmentally homoplastic and that they may not be useful for identifying phylogenetic homology. An important and unanticipated finding of this study was the identification of a new taxonomically informative feature at the EDJ of the upper molars, namely the post-paracone tubercle (PPT). We found that the PPT was nearly ubiquitous in H. neanderthalensis and the small sample of Middle Pleistocene African and European humans (MPAE) examined, differing significantly from the low frequencies observed in all other hominoids, including Pleistocene and recent H. sapiens. We emphasize the utility of the EDJ for human evolutionary studies and demonstrate how features that look similar at the external surface may be the product of different developmental patterns. This study also highlights the importance of incorporating both developmental and morphological data into evolutionary studies in order to gain a better understanding of the evolutionary significance of dental and skeletal features.

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