Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 91: Complex DNA Damage: A Route to Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability and Carcinogenesis

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 91: Complex DNA Damage: A Route to Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability and Carcinogenesis

<p>Cancers <a href="http://ift.tt/2tBe99S">doi: 10.3390/cancers9070091</a></p> 
<p>Authors: 
    Ifigeneia Mavragani 
    Zacharenia Nikitaki 
    Maria Souli 
    Asef Aziz 
    Somaira Nowsheen 
    Khaled Aziz 
    Emmy Rogakou 
    Alexandros Georgakilas 
    </p> 
<p>Cellular effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are of great variety and level, but they are mainly damaging since radiation can perturb all important components of the cell, from the membrane to the nucleus, due to alteration of different biological molecules ranging from lipids to proteins or DNA. Regarding DNA damage, which is the main focus of this review, as well as its repair, all current knowledge indicates that IR-induced DNA damage is always more complex than the corresponding endogenous damage resulting from endogenous oxidative stress. Specifically, it is expected that IR will create clusters of damage comprised of a diversity of DNA lesions like double strand breaks (DSBs), single strand breaks (SSBs) and base lesions within a short DNA region of up to 15–20 bp. Recent data from our groups and others support two main notions, that these damaged clusters are: (1) repair resistant, increasing genomic instability (GI) and malignant transformation and (2) can be considered as persistent “danger” signals promoting chronic inflammation and immune response, causing detrimental effects to the organism (like radiation toxicity). Last but not least, the paradigm shift for the role of radiation-induced systemic effects is also incorporated in this picture of IR-effects and consequences of complex DNA damage induction and its erroneous repair.</p><br /><br />

http://ift.tt/2tBe99S

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