Identification of Unique Proteomic Signatures in Allergic and Non-Allergic Skin Disease

Abstract

Background

Atopic dermatitis (AD), psoriasis (PS), and contact dermatitis (CD) are common skin diseases, characterized by barrier disruption and systemic inflammation, with unique epidermal signatures and common inflammatory pathways identified by transcriptomic profiling. This study profiled proteomic signatures in serum from subjects with AD, PS, and CD compared with healthy controls (HC).

Objective

Identify unique proteomic signatures to distinguish between inflammatory diseases with similar epidermal disruption and overlapping epithelial inflammation.

Methods

Sera from 20 subjects with moderate to severe AD, 10 subjects with CD, 12 subjects with moderate to severe PS, 10 subjects with both AD and CD, and 10 HC with no history of skin disease was analyzed using high throughput proteomic analysis that detects expression of 1129 protein targets. Protein expression was compared between disease and HC, and across diseases for statistical significance (fold change ≥1.5 and false discovery rate ≤0.05), to identify unique proteomic signatures for each disease.

Results

Complement C5A anaphylatoxin (C5A), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), ILT-4, C-C motif ligand 18 (PARC), and sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 14 (SIG14) were significantly modulated in all three diseases compared with HC. We identified unique signatures for AD (Immunoglobulin E (IgE), thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)), CD (10 proteins), and PS (kynureninase (KYNU)). Proteomic profiling in subjects with both AD and CD identified additional dysregulated proteins compared with subjects with either condition alone, indicating an exacerbated inflammation reaction.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Unique sera proteomic signatures may distinguish between inflammatory skin diseases despite similar epidermal barrier disruption and epithelial inflammation. This may provide insight into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in difficult-to-treat subjects.

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