Determinants of short and long term outcomes in patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction following neoadjuvant chemotherapy

Background

We evaluated oncologic outcomes and complications of skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) with immediate reconstruction (IR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with early-stage and locally advanced breast cancer (BC).

Methods

BC patients from 2000 to 2014 treated with NAC followed by SSM/NSM and IR were reviewed. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, NAC response, complications, and recurrence were analyzed.

Results

Two hundred sixty-nine patients with 280 BCs were treated with NAC followed by SSM (94%) or NSM (6%) with IR. Median age was 47 (26-72) years with a median follow-up of 45 months. Pathologic complete response (pCR) was noted in 49 (17.5%) cases. Overall 30-day complication rate was 13.2%. Variables associated with complications included BMI (P < 0.0001), tobacco use (P = 0.015), and adjuvant radiation (P = 0.025). Local-regional recurrence was 3.2% and metastatic recurrence was 13.2%. Variables predicting recurrence risk were pre-NAC tumor size (P < 0.001), residual tumor size (P = 0.002), Grade III (P = 0.002), HER-2 negative (P = 0.025), pre-NAC nodal disease (P = 0.05), and lack of pCR (P = 0.045).

Conclusion

Following NAC, risk factors for complications in patients undergoing SSM/NSM with IR are high BMI, smoking, and adjuvant XRT. SSM/NSM following NAC is associated with excellent local control. These data support expanding the indications for NSM/SSM to include patients receiving NAC.

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