Cytoplasmic Form of Carlr lncRNA Facilitates Inflammatory Gene Expression upon NF-{kappa}B Activation [IMMUNE REGULATION]

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of inflammation. To further understand the interaction between inflammatory signaling pathways and lncRNAs, we characterized the function of cardiac and apoptosis-related lncRNA (Carlr), an lncRNA expressed in both mouse and human cells of diverse tissues. Carlr expression is increased following NF-B signaling in macrophages, with concomitant translocation to, and enrichment of, the transcript in the cytoplasm. Knockdown of Carlr results in impaired expression of NF-B pathway genes and influences the interaction between macrophages and intestinal cells in an inflammatory environment. In human celiac disease patient samples, increased levels of the Carlr transcript were detected in the cytoplasm, alongside elevated expression of NF-B pathway genes. These findings suggest that increased Carlr expression and/or cytoplasmic localization is required for efficient NF-B signaling and is associated with the inflamed tissue state observed in human celiac disease.

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