Antibody-Dependent NK Cell Activation Differentially Targets EBV-Infected Cells in Lytic Cycle and Bystander B Lymphocytes Bound to Viral Antigen-Containing Particles [INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE]

NK cells have been reported to respond against EBV-infected B cells in the lytic cycle and to control the viral infection involving IFN- secretion. Early reports proposed a role for NK cell Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) triggered via FcR-IIIA (CD16) in the response to EBV. In the current study, we revisited this issue, showing that serum from EBV+ individuals triggered vigorous NK cell degranulation and cytokine production (i.e., TNF-α and IFN-) against EBV-infected cells, enhancing NK cell activation. The effect was preferentially directed against cells in the lytic phase and was associated with surface expression of the gp350/220 envelope Ag. In contrast, binding of gp350+ particles, released by EBV-infected cells, to B cell lines or autologous primary B lymphocytes also promoted specific Ab-dependent NK cell degranulation and TNF-α production but induced minimal IFN- secretion. In that case, target cell damage appeared marginal compared with the effect of a control anti-CD20 Ab (rituximab) at concentrations that triggered similar NK cell activation, indicating that cell-associated gp350+ particles may divert the cytolytic machinery, impairing its direct action on the plasma membrane. These observations support that Ab-dependent NK cell activation plays an important role in the control of EBV, enhancing NK cell effector functions against infected B cells in the lytic cycle. In contrast, the data reveal that gp350+ particles bound to bystander B cells trigger Ab-dependent NK cell degranulation and TNF-α but not cytotoxicity or IFN- production, potentially favoring the progression of viral infection.

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