ADAM10-Interacting Tetraspanins Tspan5 and Tspan17 Regulate VE-Cadherin Expression and Promote T Lymphocyte Transmigration [INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION]

The recruitment of blood leukocytes across the endothelium to sites of tissue infection is central to inflammation, but also promotes chronic inflammatory diseases. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) is a ubiquitous transmembrane molecular scissor that is implicated in leukocyte transmigration by proteolytically cleaving its endothelial substrates. These include VE-cadherin, a homotypic adhesion molecule that regulates endothelial barrier function, and transmembrane chemokines CX3CL1 and CXCL16, which have receptors on leukocytes. However, a definitive role for endothelial ADAM10 in transmigration of freshly isolated primary leukocytes under flow has not been demonstrated, and the relative importance of distinct ADAM10 substrates is unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that ADAM10 can be regarded as six different molecular scissors with different substrate specificities, depending on which of six TspanC8 tetraspanins it is associated with, but TspanC8s remain unstudied in leukocyte transmigration. In the current study, ADAM10 knockdown on primary HUVECs was found to impair transmigration of freshly isolated human peripheral blood T lymphocytes, but not neutrophils or B lymphocytes, in an in vitro flow assay. This impairment was due to delayed transmigration rather than a complete block, and was overcome in the presence of neutrophils. Transmigration of purified lymphocytes was dependent on ADAM10 regulation of VE-cadherin, but not CX3CL1 and CXCL16. Tspan5 and Tspan17, the two most closely related TspanC8s by sequence, were the only TspanC8s that regulated VE-cadherin expression and were required for lymphocyte transmigration. Therefore endothelial Tspan5- and Tspan17-ADAM10 complexes may regulate inflammation by maintaining normal VE-cadherin expression and promoting T lymphocyte transmigration.

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