Diagnostic value of cone beam computed tomography and panoramic radiography in predicting mandibular nerve exposure during third molar surgery

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracies of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic techniques in predicting inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) exposure. The sample size was determined based on a pilot study. This prospective clinical series study included 59 third molar extraction sites with any of seven previously suggested panoramic signs of IAN exposure. The diagnosis of nerve exposure was done on panoramic and CBCT images. Molars were extracted and nerve exposure was evaluated clinically.



Expression and clinical significance of TrkB in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma: a pilot study

Previous studies have confirmed that tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) plays a critical role in the occurrence, development, and metastasis of many kinds of malignant tumour. More recently, TrkB was found to be overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to be involved in multistep tumour progression. In this study, the expression of TrkB was investigated in 27 cases of sinonasal SCC using an immunohistochemical method. The clinical significance and possible role of TrkB as a prognostic marker in these tumours was also explored.


Oral mucosal epithelial cells express the membrane anchored mucin MUC1


Publication date: January 2017
Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 73
Author(s): Helena Ukkonen, Paula Pirhonen, Maria Herrala, Jopi J.W. Mikkonen, Surya P. Singh, Raija Sormunen, Arja M. Kullaa
ObjectiveThe presence of a stable salivary pellicle (SP) is essential to provide a wet surface for the oral mucosal epithelia. The oral mucosa is covered by the SP which is suggested to be a mixed film of both salivary and epithelial components. Our aim was to analyse the presence of membrane-anchored mucin MUC1 in the oral mucosal epithelia.DesingThe presence of MUC1 was studied by immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopical methods in 19 buccal mucosal specimens. The localization and intensity of the epithelial expression were analyzed.ResultsStrong staining of MUC1 was found in the epithelial cells of intermediate and superficial layers. Some basal cells were shown faint expression. In the intermediate and superficial layers, the MUC1 expression was seen mainly on the upper cell surface. Furthermore, the expression of MUC1 was noted in the cytoplasm near the nucleus and in the rough granules. By electron microscopy, extracellular domain of membrane-anchored molecules extruded about 15–30nm above the cell surface in the apical cells of the oral epithelium. Immunoelectron microscopic examination shows that MUC1 is mainly localized in the plasma membrane of epithelial cells and also in small vesicles (75–100nm) just below the plasma membrane.ConclusionThe membrane-anchored MUC1 is expressed in the superficial layer of the oral mucosal epithelium, especially on the upper surface of epithelial cells. MUCI may be the anchoring protein of the salivary pellicle stabilization.


The relationship between vegetable/fruit consumption and gallbladder/bile duct cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan


Vegetable and fruit consumption may have a protective effect against several types of cancers. However, the effect on biliary cancers is unclear. We investigated the association of vegetable/fruit consumption with the risks of gallbladder cancer (GBC), intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC) and extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC) in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model, and the exposure level was categorized into quartiles, with the lowest group used as the reference. A total of 80,371 people aged 45–74 years were enrolled between 1995 and 1999, and followed up for 1,158,632 person-years until 2012, during which 133 GBC, 99 IHBDC, and 161 EHBDC cases were identified. Increased consumption of total vegetable and fruit was significantly associated with a decreased risk of EHBDC (HR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29–0.81 for the highest group; P-trend = 0.005). From the analysis of relevant nutrients, significantly decreased risk of EHBDC was associated with folate and insoluble fiber (HR = 0.48, 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28–0.85, 0.31–0.88 for the highest group; P-trend = 0.010, 0.023; respectively), and a significant trend of decreased EHBDC risk associated with vitamin C was observed (P-trend = 0.029). No decreased risk of GBC and IHBDC was found. Our findings suggest that increased vegetable/fruit consumption may decrease a risk of EHBDC, and folate, vitamin C, and insoluble fiber might be key contributors to the observed protective effect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Inhibition of SRC family kinases reduces myeloid-derived suppressor cells in head and neck cancer


SRC family kinases (SFKs), a group of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, modulate multiple cellular functions, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. SFKs display aberrant activity in progressive stages of human cancers. However, the precise role of SFKs in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) signaling network is far from clear. In this study, we found that the inhibition of SFKs activity by dasatinib effectively reduced the tumor size and population of MDSCs in the HNSCC mouse model. Molecular analysis indicates that phosphorylation of LYN, rather than SRC, was inhibited by dasatinib treatment. Next, we analyzed LYN expression by immunostaining and found that it was over expressed in the human HNSCC specimens. Moreover, LYN expression in stromal cells positively correlated with myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) makers CD11b and CD33 in human HNSCC. The dual positive expression of LYN in epithelial and stromal cells (EPI+SRT+) was associated with unfavorable overall survival of HNSCC patients. These findings indicate that SFKs may be a potential target for an effective immunotherapy of HNSCC by decreasing MDSCs and moreover, LYN will have an impact on such therapeutic strategy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Associations between adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research cancer prevention recommendations and biomarkers of inflammation, hormonal and insulin response


Adherence to the 2007 WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations has been associated with lower cancer risk but the underlying biological mechanisms have not been elucidated. We utilized dietary and lifestyle data from 11,342 women in the Nurses’ Health Study and 8,136 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, to investigate associations between adherence scores and markers of inflammation, hormonal and insulin response. Two scores ranging from 0 to 3 were constructed to assess adherence to the energy balance-related recommendations (weight management, physical activity, energy density); and the plant, animal foods and alcohol intake recommendations; with higher scores indicating greater adherence. The following biomarkers were assessed in plasma samples donated by chronic disease-free women (1990) and men (1994): C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 (TNFαR2) and adiponectin for inflammation; estrone and estradiol for hormonal response in women, C-peptide for hyperinsulinemia; and triglycerides/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio for insulin resistance. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses, we estimated relative concentrations of biomarkers across adherence categories. There was a significant trend of lower (higher for adiponectin) biomarker concentrations with higher adherence to the energy balance recommendations (all P-trend<0.0001). Comparing the highest (3) to the lowest recommendation category (0-1), the percent difference in relative concentrations of biomarkers was CRP, -69%; IL6, -41%; TNFαR2, -13%; adiponectin, +36; C-peptide, -43%; TG/HDL, -43%; estrone, -31%; and estradiol, -43%; in women; and CRP, -59%; IL6, -42%; TNFαR2, -10%; adiponectin, +22%; C-peptide, -44%; and TG/HDL, -40%; in men. In contrast, associations between adherence to the plant, animal foods and alcohol intake recommendations and biomarker concentrations were weaker, and mostly nonsignificant. The healthier biomarker profile associated with greater adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations is driven mainly by adherence to the energy balance-related recommendations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Underlying mechanisms of the JAK2V617F mutation in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms


              <p>Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) comprise a spectrum of clonal neoplastic disorders characterized by overproduction of terminally differentiated cells of the myeloid lineage. A common genetic basis for the <em>BCR-ABL</em>-negative MPN disorders was elucidated in 2005 with the identification of the JAK2V617F mutation in the majority of MPN patients. The discovery of JAK2V617F had a dramatic impact on the diagnosis and treatment of MPN. Testing for JAK2 mutations is now included in the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for the diagnosis of MPN, and in 2011 the oral JAK2 kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib became the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug for the treatment of myelofibrosis. The drug is now also approved in Europe and Canada.</p><br /><br />


Immunoglobulin Glycosylation Effects in Allergy and Immunity


                  </span><h3>Purpose of Review</h3> 
                  <p>The aim of this review will be to familiarize the reader with the general area of antibody (Ab) glycosylation and to summarize the known functional roles of glycosylation and how glycan structure can contribute to various disease states with emphasis on allergic disease.</p> 

                  </span><h3>Recent Findings</h3> 
                  <p>Both immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype and conserved Fc glycosylation sites often dictate the downstream activity of an Ab where complexity and degree of glycosylation contribute to its ability to bind Fc receptors (FcRs) and activate complement. Most information on the effects of glycosylation center on IgG in cancer therapy and autoimmunity. In cancer therapy, glycosylation modifications that enhance affinity for activating FcRs are utilized to facilitate immune-mediated tumor cell killing. In autoimmunity, disease severity has been linked to alterations in the presence, location, and composition of Fc glycans. Significantly less is understood about the role of glycosylation in the setting of allergy and asthma. However, recent data demonstrate that glycosylation of IgE at the asparagine-394 site of Cε3 is necessary for IgE interaction with the high affinity IgE receptor but, surprisingly, glycosylation has no effect on IgE interaction with its low-affinity lectin receptor, CD23.</p> 

                  <p>Variations in the specific glycoform may modulate the interaction of an Ig with its receptors. Significantly more is known about the functional effects of glycosylation of IgG than for other Ig isotypes. Thus, the role of glycosylation is much better understood in the areas of autoimmunity and cancer therapy, where IgG is the dominant isotype, than in the field of allergy, where IgE predominates. Further work is needed to fully understand the role of glycan variation in IgE and other Ig isotypes with regard to the inhibition or mediation of allergic disease.</p> 
                <br /><br />


Interleukin-5 Antagonists Usher in a New Generation of Asthma Therapy


                <p>Asthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease in the USA. A subset of patients with asthma have refractory symptoms, persistent eosinophilic inflammation, and recurrent exacerbations despite maximal medical therapy. The monoclonal antibodies targeting the IL-5 pathway are a new class of medications designed to target severe eosinophilic asthma. There are two medications clinically available: mepolizumab and reslizumab, both of which target IL-5. A third medication, benralizumab, is currently under development and targets the IL-5 receptor. Clinical data suggest these medications can reduce asthma exacerbations and improve lung function in patients with peripheral eosinophilia and poorly controlled asthma despite maximal medical therapy. The anti-IL-5 medications are among the first targeted molecular therapies for asthma and will usher in an exciting new era in the treatment of severe asthma.</p><br /><br />