Residual Pure Intralymphatic Breast Carcinoma Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy is Indicative of Poor Clinical Outcome, Even in Node-Negative Patients.

Residual carcinoma confined to lymphovascular spaces following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for invasive breast carcinoma is an uncommon finding. We studied pathologic features and outcome for patients with pure intralymphatic carcinoma (PIC) following NAC, a pattern of residual disease reported to have a poor outcome in the only previously published series of this entity. Six of 284 (2.1%) patients treated with NAC were studied. All 6 patients had axillary lymph node involvement before NAC. Tumors were triple-negative (n=3) and HER2+ (n=3: 2 ER+, 1 ER-). Two patients presented with clinical findings of inflammatory carcinoma. Three of 5 pre-NAC core biopsies showed lymphovascular invasion. Three patients showed complete clinical response to NAC, and 3 showed partial response. Post-NAC surgical specimens showed foci of intralymphatic carcinoma in the breast spanning an extent of 0.5 mm to 0.5 cm. Residual ductal carcinoma in situ was present in 2 cases. Four of 6 patients converted to node-negative following NAC. One patient had distant metastasis at presentation and 1 patient died of pulmonary embolism 2 months after surgery. Three of the 4 remaining patients developed distant metastasis, of which 2 first recurred locally (in mean follow-up of 46.5 mo). Patients with PIC had significant greater risk for relapse (hazard ratio, 10.18 [1.97, 52.58]; P=0.006) compared with other NAC-treated patients, after controlling for residual lymph node involvement, tumor size, tumor subtype, histologic grade, and age. Residual PIC following NAC is associated with poor outcome, including in patients that are node-negative following NAC.

Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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DICER1 Mutations are Consistently Present in Moderately and Poorly Differentiated Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumors.

Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) are uncommon sex cord-stromal tumors associated with both germ-line and somatic DICER1 mutations, the frequency of which has varied widely in different studies (0% to 62.5%). The current World Health Organization Classification includes 3 histologic types of SLCTs (well-differentiated, moderately differentiated, and poorly differentiated); heterologous elements and/or retiform patterns may be present in moderately and poorly differentiated neoplasms. We investigated the frequency of DICER1 mutations in a series of 38 ovarian tumors initially diagnosed as SLCTs, and explored whether identified mutations were associated with specific morphologic features. Specialist pathology review performed blinded to molecular results confirmed 34 tumors to be SLCTs (22 moderately differentiated, 8 poorly differentiated; 4 well-differentiated), while the remaining 4 neoplasms were considered not to represent SLCTs. Of the 34 cases diagnosed as SLCTs, 30 (88%) harbored >=1 DICER1 mutation. All 30 moderately differentiated/poorly differentiated SLCTs contained mutations, but we did not find deleterious DICER1 mutations in the 4 well-differentiated SLCTs. Our study reports the highest DICER1 mutation frequency to date in SLCTs, with 100% of moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated tumors being DICER1-mutated. This suggests that DICER1 mutation may be a defining feature of these neoplasms. Although the number of cases is limited, well-differentiated SLCTs appear to be DICER1-independent. Moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated SLCT components often coexist with each other and form part of a spectrum, while well-differentiated SLCTs usually occur in pure form, suggesting that fundamentally, these represent 2 separate and independent tumor types with a different pathogenesis. We suggest that all patients with ovarian SLCTs undergo germ-line DICER1 mutation testing.

Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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